# Trees and Loops#

Joints in DAVE are mathematically perfect. This has big advantages for numerical stability and solving speed. This has one big disadvantage: It is impossible to construct geometric loops in a structure. This is because a child can not be its own (grand) parent. Axis systems can only be placed on others as long as their family relations form a tree. Trees are good, loops are impossible.

This is not unique to DAVE. Any software implementing multibody structures (Orcaflex constraints, bullet physics multibody) suffers from this.

This is usually not a big problem as long as you are aware of it. The simplest solution is to use an elastic connector somewhere. Examples of elastic connectors are: beams, 2d springs, 6d springs and cables and shackles with their “elastic” property set to True.

## Work-around 1: Elastic connectors#

This becomes an issue for example when attempting to construct a truss structure such as a lift-frame using geometry.

One can place B on A, C on B and D on C. But A can not be placed on D.

A
|-- B
|-- C
|-- D


The work-around in this case is to connect D to A by creating a stiff 6D or 2D connector. (Or, even better, model the corners as Axes nodes and create linear beam between them).

## Work-around 2: Re-ordering#

You may also run into this restiction when you need to create a fixed connection between two standard assets. The connection may need to be made between two items that are already some other nodes child. For example you have a wind-turbine with a shackle on top. The shackle is a child of the wind-turbine. You want to connect this to some kind of clever lifting device on a vessel. The clever-lifting-device is a child of the vessel.

Vessel
|--- Clever lifting device

Wind-turbine
|---- Shackle


In this case it may be possible invert the parent-child relation of the wind-turbine/shackle such that the shackle becomes the parent and the turbine becomes the child:

Vessel
|--- Clever lifting device
|--- Shackle
|---- Wind-turbine


General tip

It is good practice make the largest item the parent.

• Crane on a ship: Ship as parent, crane as child.